Generation of Programming Languages

Programming Languages

State Generation of Programming Languages

Hundreds of programming languages ​​have been discovered since 1945. In the beginning, writing programs for computers to solve problems using machine language was extremely difficult, time-consuming, and limited in scope. But today's computers are artificially intelligent. That means people don't have to memorize thousands of instructions or commands to solve problems with computers, they don't have to follow specific grammar. Nowadays computers can also recognize human speech and can solve problems according to instructions.

In the development of computers as well as programming languages, different types of programming languages ​​have been developed, compressed, changed, and expanded at different times or stages. The emergence of today's simple, efficient and universal programming languages ​​has gone beyond 5 stages (Generation). The stages are happening


1st Generation or Machine Language-1945

This is directly the language of the machine. You have to command the machine with binary 0 and 1. The machine language is called the first generation language (1st generation language) Electrical Signal and ON-OFF represents Binary 0 or 1 by state, converts various instructions into opcodes, and programming is called first stage programming language. It is also called low-level language


2nd Generation-1950

Assembly language. It is also the language of machines, but it is not a direct machine language. By converting it into machine code, the machine has to understand the assembly language as the second generation language. When a program is designed using Binary opcode represented by a simple symbol as an instruction, it is called a 2nd generation programming language.


3rd generation-1960

Higher or higher-level language. It is a language we can understand. That is, just like the ordinary English language. It has to be compiled and converted into machine code. C, Java, Python are examples of this language. Mid-level language is called 3rd generation language. When a program is designed using instructions in a language that closely represents assembly language and high-level language, it is called 3rd generation or mid-level language.


4th generation-1970

Very high-level language. It's a bit like the third-generation language. But it is easier to compare with third-generation languages. A language close to the language we usually use. It is especially used in database programming. A high-level language is called a 4th generation language. When programming is designed using simple, understandable, and universal instructions, it is called a 4th generation programming language or a high-level language. FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL High-level language.


5th Generation-1980

Normal or natural language. It is the same as the language of the third and fourth generations. But much easier. The way we talk, the way visual gestures indicate. Intelligently programmed with the language of this breed. Database management-related languages ​​are called the fifth generation. DataBase Management language is used to program various types of operations such as Traversing, Searching, Sorting, Indexing, Inserting, Deleting, Merging, etc. effectively and efficiently. Such as dBase, Foxpro, SQL Oracle, etc.


6th Generation 

Artificial Intelligence-Al is a successful creation of this generation. Languages of this Generation are well known for performing the most convenient and least time-consuming problem-solving process. Such as LISP, Prolog, etc.


Describe Translator Program

A program that translates a computer's source program into an instrumental language into an object program is called a translator program. The source program here refers to the language in which the program is first written. For example, a program is written in Cubes, the computer will not understand the program directly. The program must be translated into machine language (in binary), the translator program is used in this translation work. Because computers can only understand machine language, source programs written in other languages ​​cannot be implemented without translation into machine language.


There are three types of translator programs. E.g.


  1. Compiler
  2. Interpreter
  3. Assembler


Compiler: The job of a compiler is to translate a high-level language source program into an object or machine program. The compiler reads and translates the entire program at once. Both the assembler and the compiler are in secondary memory. They are brought to RAM when needed. Translating high-level language into machine language is much more complicated than compiler assemblers because it is much more difficult to translate sign language into machine language. As a result, the compiler takes up more space in the memory space. Different levels of language require different compilers because one compiler can convert only one high-level language into a machine language. For example, a compiler that can translate Basic into machine language cannot translate Pascal again. Usually, a statement in high-level language becomes four or five instructions in machine language. In addition to translating, the compiler can also judge the quality of the source program.


Main functions of the compiler (advantages):

Translating source program into object program.

Link to the program. That is to add the necessary routine with the program. Routine is a small part of the program that is given appropriate instructions for a specific task.

Report any errors in the program.

Allocation of necessary memory locations in the main memory. If necessary, print out the object or source program.

Compiler Disadvantages: The source translates the program into an absolute object program so that step-by-step errors cannot be identified and corrected.

Mistakes cannot be corrected because they are not identified.


Uses of Computer Programs

Programming

The use of computer programs is so widespread that it has no account. There is no field of human life where computer programs are not used. We played video games as children, before computer games. There was the use of programming. Video games had to be instructed to write small games. Instructions are also programming. We play computer games now. Much improved from video games. Here and programming. We watch TV. We also have a lot of programs on our TVs now. Moving from one channel to another, changing inputs on the TV, VCD, showing videos on screen, writing programs for these too. We see in the release, in today's movies, the work of animation is more than the work of the camera. And that is done with programming. This programming works behind the digital clock in our hands as well.

Programming. When we go to medical, we are given many tests. The tests are done with a number of machines. The machines work on how many instructions, on the program. Used to analyze any disease

Programming. Programming is used to create a cure for the disease. We can now buy almost any product at home. We visit a website, we pay, this programming is behind everything.

A robot is an inanimate object unless it has instructions. Instructions are written by programming. And these robots are used to do all the hard work. Even using nanorobots to destroy any cancer cells inside the human body. In addition to these, there are thousands of other fields where programming is used.

Below are some notable areas of computer programming


(A) Database management operations

(B) Computer programs are used in all kinds of work-related to science or mathematics.

(C) In industrial factories

(D) In ​​the work related to maintaining law and order and law enforcement

(E) Research work

(F) To complete big problems quickly and efficiently

(G) All work-related to education

(H) All medical work

(I) Agricultural and agricultural research work

(J) Work-related to vehicle manufacturing and vehicle control

(K) In the management of justice

(L) Household work etc.

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